Avicultura

Handling programs for the breeding of reproductive ducks

Source: Cálamo, contents for Internet

During the past two years several big producers of Muscovy, Mallard, and Beijing ducks, called our office requesting a handling program for the feeding and for the eggs production phase for their lots of reproductive ducks. Based on previous experiences working with Beijing ducks and with the reproductive races of chickens of the heavy variety, we have developed a handling program that can improve the yields of their lot of reproductive turkeys.

All the domestic corral birds, including the webfooted ones, should be fed quality feeding of commercial type.

The quality of the feeding, the quantity consumed, and the rate of body growth are extremely important for the determination of production index and the number of produced eggs. In the past, reproductive ducks maintained with a restricted feeding program to achieve specific weight goals during different ages achieved superior characteristics of production when comparing them with the reproductive ducks that were fed without any type of restrictions, a restricted or limited diet controls the ingestion of nutrients to impede an excessive gain of body fat. The excess fat on the females' body interferes with the reproductive tract's normal function.

The reproductive tract can really end up being blocked or at least partially obstructed when the quantity of fat increases in the abdomen. A recent study carried out with Beijing reproductive ducks has demonstrated that overweight females had an average egg production of approximately 20% less during its typical production period than those females that were subjected to a restricted feeding program.

The recommended weights during the growth phase and the feeding program for the breeding of ducks are shown in Table 1. Feeding in Table 1 is calculated in Kg of food per each 100 ducks. The growth diet (Table 2) should be administered until the ducks begin their period of egg laying. After the beginning of the egg laying period, a reproductive diet should be implemented.

The quantity of feeding shown on Table 1 may have to be modify or adjusted according to environmental temperatures. During a severe cold wave, it may be necessary to increase the feeding of 1-2 1/4 Kg for each 100 ducks to maintain an appropriate growth or to maintain the production of eggs. It may be necessary to temporarily separate the males from the females to achieve a good gain of body weight for both sexes. Males tend to have an aggressive behavior during feeding which may result in an unequal consumption and gain of weight between males and females.

Due to the aggressiveness of males, they can frequently hurt the females and even cause their death. A ratio of four to one or of five to one (females: males) is an appropriate number to maintain an appropriate fertility.

Ducks' reproductive yields is regulated by the amount light-time of the day. Illumination programs generally use a combination of natural light of day and artificial light to stimulate and maintain fertility and egg production.

Substitution lots

Reproducers for substitution should be born during June or July to take advantage of the day's natural decrease in duration during the weeks following this time. These ducks should be raised apart from the oldest reproducers to make sure they have an appropriate, feeding, illnesses control and illumination program.

When ducks are born during summer, use the natural light of day until the ducks have 22 weeks of age and then put to work the clocks of the lights to extend the total duration of the day up to 14 hours (Photo/estimulation). At 24 weeks of age increase the duration of the light up to 16 hours total (natural + artificial). If you inhabit a region of the country in which there is a natural day longer than 16 hours, adjustment the clocks so the necessary artificial light is equal to the maximum duration of the day in the area. After sunset, an artificial light of 10lux intensity at about the duck's head height is implemented to stimulate and to maintain the production of eggs. An intensity of 10lux is really a very low light. If you hold this article in front of you at about arm length in a light with an intensity of 10lux, you would be hardly able to read it.

It is recommended to use commercial foods for the lots of reproductive ducks. He/she requires to feed to the ducks with a diet of growth until the 22 weeks (Chart 2) and then to begin with the diet of reproducers during the setting phase. The main ingredients of the diet of growth are (15.5% raw protein, 2.930 Kcal/Kg of energy metabolismble (EM), and 1% of calcium) and they are formulated to promote the growth of the skeleton and muscular system.

The concentrations of ingredients in the diet of growth help to impede an excessive feeding consumption and an unnecessary gain of corporal fat. As it is shown in the Chart 2, the calcium and the raw protein they are increased in the diet of the reproducers to supply the additional necessities for the egg production. Give free feeding during one week to the newly born ducks.

Recycled of a lot of reproductive ducks through the change

It is recommended to follow the following steps when it is wanted to recycle a lot of reproductive ducks. In November or in December, to disconnect the clocks of the lights to change completely to the duration of the natural day of the solar day. During December the days are those but short of the year (he/she remembers that the reproduction is stimulated with the continuation of the duration of the days).

To move away all the foods completely (to empty and to clean all the troughs) of the reproductive lot, but to let that the ducks have free access to the water of drinking. The goal is in to induce the change of the feathers and to reduce the corporal pesos on 30%. On 50% or lightly but of the ducks of the reproductive lot they will lose most of its primary feathers. Carry out the heavy of the reproductive ducks to find their weight average after one week and again to the nine days after having moved away the whole feeding.

Extrapolate the curve of losses of weight in previous lots or make it obtaining the pesos averages of the lot each two or three days until a decrease of 30% of the corporal weight has been gotten. Some mortality can happen during the period from the due change to the sick birds. After he/she has gotten lost 30% of the corporal weight, begin to give every second day 12.260 Kg for each 100 ducks of food of the change diet (Chart 2) and follow the program of feeding of the (chart 3).

The raw protein and the EM of the diet of the change will maintain the corporal size and the muscular system of the recycled ducks. The level of calcium (2.5%) in the diet of the change, this fitting to stuff the reservations of calcium in the body. When the production of eggs begins, it is necessary to change to the diet of reproducers.

The program of daily illumination is very important during the one it recycles of the reproductive ducks. After the lot has moved the feathers and you has begun the food supply, calculate the hours of natural light of the day. Increase the duration of the day of total light with 30 minutes of artificial light every week by means of the clock. To this method he/she is called program of illumination of a step - up. Alternate the increase of the duration of the day every week, increasing once for the morning and another week during the afternoon.

In other words, to increase the total days of light (natural+artificial) in 30 minutes one week during the morning and again to increase the total days of light in next week but this time during the afternoon. Not to exceed the 16 hours of total light for day to less than that you need to compare the total light of light to a longer day of 16 hours of their region. Again, an intensity of ten lux should be adapted. Follow this program of illumination until the first egg appears. Change to the diet of reproducers and increase the light until the 16 hours of light per day or until comparing the duration of total light with the day but I release in their area. Follow the program of feeding of the chart 3 for the lots of recycled reproducers.

Remember that the yield of its reproductive lot will depend on the handling program that is practiced. The application of these handling norms will allow that the typical lot of reproducers maintains the quality production of eggs during one to two years.

Table 1
Feeding program and Weight Goals for Mallard, Muscovy, and Beijing Ducks
 

Weight (Kg)

 
Age (weeks)

Females

Males (*1)

Feeding
(Kgs./100 ducks)
0 0.054 0.059 Normal Feeding (no restrictions) (*2)
1 0.091 0.113 5.900 every other 2 days
2 0.227 0.250 5.900 every other 2 days
3 0.454 0.499 6.800 every other 2 days
4 0.817 0.908 6.800 every other 2 days
5 0.953 1.021 7.700 every other 2 days
6 1.226 1.362 7.700 every other 2 days
7 1.590 1.816 9.530 every other 2 days
8 2.061 2.270 9.530 every other 2 days
9 2.147 2.360 10.450 every other 2 days
10 2.211 2.465 10.450 every other 2 days
11 2.279 2.583 10.900 every other 2 days
12 2.343 2.605 10.900 every other 2 days
13 2.411 2.679 10.900 every other 2 days
14 2.479 2.769 10.900 every other 2 days
15 2.511 2.837 10.900 every other 2 days
16 2.556 2.883 10.900 every other 2 days
17 2.592 2.919 10.900 every other 2 days
18 2.633 2.965 10.900 every other 2 days
19 2.669 3.051 10.900 every other 2 days
20 2.710 3.137 10.900 every other 2 days
21 2.756 3.178 10.900 every other 2 days
22 Comienzo de 14 horas de luz/diarias 2.806 3.241 11.350 every other 2 days (*3)
23 2.842 3.282 11.350 every other 2 days
24 Comienzo de 16 horas de luz/diarias 2.883 3.324 12.260 every other 2 days
25 2.915 3.360 12.260 every other 2 days
26 2.951 3.405 14.528 every day
27 -- -- 14.528 every day
28 -- -- 16.350 every day
29 -- -- 16.350 every day
30 -- -- 18.160 every day
31 -- -- 18.160 every day
32 -- -- 18.160 every day
33 -- -- 18.160 every day
34 -- -- 18.160 every day
35 -- -- 18.160 every day
36 -- -- 18.160 every day
37 -- -- 18.160 every day
38 -- -- 18.160 every day
39 -- -- 18.160 every day
40 -- -- 20.430 every day
41 -- -- 20.430 every day
42 -- -- 20.430 every day
43 -- -- 20.430 every day
44 -- -- 21.800 every day, until the end of the egg laying period

(*1) Beijing and Mallard males will be a slightly lighter than Muscovy males shown in this chart.

(*2) Growth diet

(*3) Reproductive diet

Table 2
Basic Diet for Reproductive Ducks

Growth

Nutrients

Quantity

% Raw Protein

15.5

Metabolism Energy Kcal/Kg.

2930

% Calcium

1.0

% Available phosphorus

0.5

% Lisina

0.72

% Metionina / Cistina

0.51

Reproductive

Nutrients

Quantity

% Raw Protein

19.0

Metabolism Energy Kcal/Kg.

2865

% Calcium

3.3

% Available phosphorus

0.42

% Lisina

1.0

% Metionina / Cistina

0.66

Moving Diet

Nutrients

Quantity

Energía metabolizable Kcal/Kg.

2865

% Calcio

2.5

% Fósforo disponible

0.45

% Lisina

0.73

% Metionina/Cistina

0.60

 

Table 3
Feeding program and weight goal for ducks during the move

 

Weight (Kg.)

 
One week after they have lost 30% of their weight Females Males Feeding (Kg./100 patos)
1 Start of the moving diet and increaasing of light periods

2.880

3.325

12.260 every other 2 days
2

2.915

3.360

12.260 every other 2 days
3

--

--

14.528 every day
4

--

--

14.528 every day
5

--

--

16.345 every day
6 Change the reproducers diet when the first egg arrives and increase the daily light to 16 hrs.

--

--

16.345 every day
7

--

--

18.160 every day
8-16

--

--

18.160 every day
17-20

--

--

20.430 every day
20

--

--

21.790 every day, until the end of the egg laying period
21

--

--

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